HealthyStuff.org releases new test results for a variety of products throughout
the year. This findings section highlights the latest set of test results and
discusses overall trends and important findings for each set of products we
2012 Garden Products Study
What did we test?
- HealthyStuff.org screened 179 common garden products. Including garden hoses (90); garden gloves (53); kneeling pads (13) and garden tools (23).
What did we find?
- Two-thirds (70.4% - 126 of 179) of products tested contained enough chemicals
of concern to be ranked “high concern” in our ranking system, which
means we detected high levels of one or more chemical hazards.
- 7.3% (13 products) were medium concern
- 22.3% (40 products) were low concern
- Overall, 30% of all products contained over 100 ppm lead in one or more component.
100 ppm is the Consumer Product Safety Commission Standard (CPSC) for lead
in children’s products.
- Lead and phthalates were found in water hoses and gloves at levels exceeding Consumer Product Safety Commission standards for other products.
- Lead was found in brass fitting for garden hoses at levels exceeding standards for brass in residential water fixtures. Garden hose ARE NOT regulated by the SDWA.
- Water samples from a representative hose contained numerous chemical hazards, including lead, phthalates and BPA.
Phthalate Material and Water Sample Results
It’s not just lead
- New laboratory test data showed water held in a tested water hose contained PVC plastic additives. Those additives, including phthalates and bisphenol A, were found to migrate out of the hose material into water contained in the hose.
- BPA levels of 2.3 part per million (ppm) were found in the hose water. This level 20-times higher than the 0.100 ppm safe drinking water level used by NSF.
- The phthalate DEHP was found at 0.025 ppm in the hose water. This level is 4-times higher then federal drinking water standards. EPA and FDA regulate DEHP in water at 0.006 mg/l (ppm).
- Other chemical hazards found include:
- 56% of products were made from PVC plastic. PVC plastic often contains hazardous additives.
- 3% of products contained > 100 cadmium
- 4.5% of products contained brominated flame retardants
- 18% of products contained antimony
- These chemicals have also been linked in animal and, less often, in human studies to long-term health impacts such as birth defects, impaired learning, liver toxicity, and cancer.
- Amount of lead varied by product type:
- Kneeling pads : 0% > 100 ppm
- Garden gloves : 19% > 100 ppm
- Garden tools : 30% > 100 ppm
- Garden hose : 50% > 100 ppm
What did we find specifically in garden hoses?
- 100% of the products sampled (four work gloves sampled and two garden hoses)
for phthalates contained four phthalate plasticizers which are currently banned
in children’s products.
- 17% of plastic hose material contained > 100 ppm lead
- 29% of brass hose fittings contain > 2,500 ppm lead. Water fixtures (faucets, etc.) designed for consumer use may contain no more then 0.25% by weight (2,500 ppm).
- 33% of water hoses tested contained lead in excess of the lead content standards in the federal Safe Drinking Water Standard. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits lead in brass in residential water fixtures to no more than 2,500 ppm, but garden hoses ARE NOT regulated by the SDWA.
- Water sampled from one hose contained 0.280 mg/l (ppm) lead. This is 18-times higher then the federal drinking water standard of 0.015 mg/l.
What are the hazards of phthalates?
- Phthalates are a group of chemicals, some of which have endocrine-disrupting properties, that can disturb normal hormonal processes, often at low levels of exposure. (Illinois EPA 2000).
- Exposure to phthalates is linked to birth defects of the genitals and altered levels of reproductive hormones in baby boys. An increased breast cancer risk is also suspected (Main 2006, Swan 2005, Marsee 2006). Phthalates in building products have also been linked to asthma. (Mendell, 2007).
- Human testing by the federal government finds phthalates in almost all of
the population, with the highest levels in children ages 6 to 11 years and
in women (CDC, 2005). DINP (one type of phthalate) is commonly used as an additive
in children’s toys.
- Studies have demonstrated possible links between DINP and adverse impacts on the reproductive system, kidneys, liver, and blood (State of Oregon, PDF).
In vitro maternal exposure to DEHP has been correlated to improper brain development in fetal rats. (Xu 2007).
- Exposure to DEHP can lead to the formation of cancerous tumors in the liver (Foster 2007,PDF).
What Can You Do?
Read the label: Avoid hoses with California Prop 65 warnings that say “this
product contains a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer
and birth defects and other reproductive harm.” Never drink or fill
swimming pools with water from a hose that isn’t clearly labeled “Lead
Free” or “Drinking
- Let it run: Always let your hose run for a few seconds before using, since
the water that’s been sitting in the hose will have the highest levels
- Avoid the sun: Store your hose in the shade. The heat from the sun can increase the leaching of chemicals from the PVC into the water.
- Don't drink water from a hose: Unless you know for sure that your hose is
drinking water safe, don’t drink from it. Even if it is labeled safe
for drinking, flush it out first before sipping. It’s also a good idea to wash
your hands after handling a hose since lead can transfer to your hands and
then from your hands to your mouth when eating. Even low levels of lead may
cause health problems.
- Buy a Lead-free hose: One easy way to cut down on the amount of lead in your immediate environment is to get a lead-free garden hose. Not only will it drastically reduce the amount of lead being deposited in your yard, it will also virtually eliminate direct exposure when watering by hand or tending to the garden. A lead-free garden hose is also safe for children to get a much-needed drink or play in the sprinklers, and pets will also be spared of potential lead poisoning from water bowls filled from the hose. The hoses are often white with a thin blue stripe, and are commonly sold in marine and recreational vehicle (RV) stores. An RV lead-free garden hose can also come in a beige color with blue stripe, to match the beige paint of many RVs. Although sold for RV and marine use, these hoses serve as great lead-free garden hoses.
- Test your soil: It a great idea to check the nutrient levels,
but you can also check the levels of metals like lead. Another important source
of lead includes lead paint.
- It’s not just lead: Our test also detected phthalate plasticizers in both
the PVC hose materials and in the water left standing in a PVC hose. Some of
these phthalates are the same phthalates which have been banned in children’s
products. We also detected bisphenol A (BPA) in water left standing in a PVC
hose. BPA is used as an antioxidant in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics and
as an inhibitor of end polymerization in PVC.
- Avoid PVC: PVC needs potentially hazardous additives and stabilizers’ to
make it “rubbery”. Instead, try a top-quality, food grade polyurethane
hose that meets Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards or an old fashion
natural rubber hose. Search on-line “polyurethane garden hose” or “rubber
garden hose” for
- Watch the brass: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits lead in brass in residential water fixtures to no more than 2,500 ppm. Garden hose ARE NOT regulated by the SDWA, and our test show 29% of brass connectors contained greater than 2,500 ppm lead. Opt for a hose that is drinking water safe and lead free. Non-brass fittings (nickel, aluminum or stainless) are more likely to lead-free.
Hose Water Sample Methodology
Municipal drinking water was placed in a Companion (a Sears brand) Light Duty 50 foot garden hose (UPC 4712052443013) which was purchased in February 2012. The product packaging contained the Prop 65 hose warning. The hose was completely filled with water and each end was clamped-off to prevent water from contacting brass fitting. The hose was placed in a yard in full sunlight for three days (72 hours). The hose was unclamped and the water sample was directly collected from the hose into glass sample containers. Three samples were collected: a sample of water from the hose; a faucet blank and a method blank of water supplied by the lab. Samples were analyzed by US EPA method SW8270C (SW3510C). The reporting/quantification limits for phthalate was 0.02 mg/L and for bisphenol A were 0.04 mg/L. All analysis were performed in accordance with the requirements of 35 IAC Part 186/NELAC standards.
Relevant Drinking Water Standards
BPA: 100 ppm
DEHP: 0.006 mg/l (ppm)
Lead: 0.015 mg/l (ppm)
California Prop 65 Lead in Water Hoses Settlement Summary
In 2003 the Center for Environmental Health (CA) filed a lawsuit against three of the larger manufacturers of water hoses in the US over lead content in the products. The lawsuit was settled in 2004 with the three defendants in the case Teckni-Plex, Inc.; Plastic Specialties and Technologies, Inc. Teknor Apex Company; and Flexon Industries Corporation.
The two-part settlement required that:
1. As of July 31, 2004 the companies shall not manufacture and sell water hoses that can either: (a) leach greater than 25 parts per billion (ppb) lead; or (b) contains intentionally added lead in the plastic jacket or skin of the product or the surface of any brass components, unless the product contains the following warning:
“WARNING: This hose contains chemical(s), including lead, known to
the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects and other reproductive
harm. Do not drink water from this hose. Wash hands after use.”
2. The companies shall not manufacture or sell water hoses WITH OR WITHOUT THE ABOVE WARNING LABEL which leach greater than 300 ppb lead (after July 31, 2005); greater than 150 ppb lead (after July 31, 2006); and greater than 50 ppb lead (after July 31, 2007).
HealthyStuff.org did not perform lead leaching testing on any products from the three companies subject to the settlement.
Other Studies on Lead in Water Hoses
ABC's Phoenix affiliate KNXV-TV release a study on
July 12, 2007 based on 10 garden hoses purchased at Wal-Mart, Target, Ace Hardware,
and Home Depot . The hoses were filled with water, sealed and left outdoors
for one day. Five of the 10 hoses, or 50%, came back showing levels of lead
much higher than 15 parts per billion (ppb), which is what the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) deems safe for drinking water. Four of those hoses
came back showing extremely high lead levels. The same report found that some
garden variety hoses are leaking up to 20 times the amount considered safe
In 2003, Consumer Reports tested 16 of the most popular hoses sold nationwide, finding that many leached up to 100 times the safe amount at the initial flush of standing water.
Note: HealthyStuff.org only tests for a limited set of chemical hazards. Garden products may also contain other chemical hazards which were NOT tested for in this study.
Other Recent HealthyStuff.org Studies
NOTE: HealthyStuff.org is an initial screening of chemicals
in products for a handful of hazardous chemicals. There are a number
of chemicals of concern that the X-ray
fluorescence (XRF) device and HealthyStuff.org cannot detect. For
example, there has been much concern recently about bisphenol A, a component
of polycarbonate plastic. The XRF device is not able to detect bisphenol
A, nor can it identify polycarbonate. In addition, the XRF device cannot
detect phthalates, a family of chemicals of concern, although we have
used the presence of PVC plastic as a surrogate for the likely presence
HealthyStuff.org ratings do not provide a measure of health risk
or chemical exposure associated with any individual product, or any individual element or related chemical. HealthyStuff.org
ratings only provide a relative measure of high, medium, and low level of concern or concentrations
of several hazardous chemicals or chemical elements in product in comparison to criteria established in the methodology.